### Electric Power System Planning: Issues, Algorithms and Solutions

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As a result, the models become more difficult to solve. On the other hand, the greater uncertainties in load growth, fuel markets and government regulations have made the problem even more complex. The criteria are to minimize the total cost under operation constraints for different type generators. It is important that WHAT generating units should he constructed or WHEN generating units should come on line over a planning horizon for themselves profits.

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Recently, the heuristic methods have been used to solve the GEP problem, such as simulated annealing SA [5], simple genetic algorithm[6, 7]. Also the genetic algorithm GA and improved genetic algorithm IGA [8] were used to solve this problem. Although, GA seems to be a good method to solve optimization problems, when applied to problems consisting of more number of local optima, the solution from GA are just near global optimum areas.

Also, it takes long simulation time to obtain the solution. Moreover, when the number of parameter is more, optimization problem is complex and coding chromosomes with more genes for increasing algorithm accuracy is caused the GA convergent speed will become very slow, so that convergent accuracy may be influenced by the slow convergent speed. To overcome these drawbacks, the PSO algorithm has been proposed[9].

Using of new algorithms to solve the GEP problem is a good way that is used in recent years. The proposed model provides for decision maker choice from among the different trade-off solutions.

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Two different problem formulations are considered. In one formulation, the first objective is to minimize cost; the second objective is to minimize sum of normalized constraint violations. In the other formulation, the first objective is to minimize investment cost; the second objective is to minimize outage cost or maximize reliability.

In this paper, an election campaign optimization ECO algorithm is proposed for the solution of GEP in order to minimize the cost subjected to the operation constraints and CO 2 emission limits for a test system including a utility and three IPPs, have been used in[12]. ECO is a new heuristic optimization algorithm which acts by simulating the behavior that the election candidates pursue the highest support from voters in election campaigns. In ECO the whole space of searching is assumed to be assembly of voters, and the current solutions are imagined to be the candidates of election.

The candidates can influence the voters round them, the effect from candidates to voters will decrease gradually with the increase of distances between the candidates and the voters. The higher prestige a candidate comports, the larger investigated range he has. In order to obtain an exact and global investigated, local investigated voters are generated in the probability determined by a normal-distribution function that the mean is the location coordinates of candidates, and global investigated voters is generated in the probability determined by a uniform distribution function[13].

This feature is caused that it has been had a flexible and well-balanced mechanism to enhance the global and local exploration abilities and found to be robust in solving multi objective problems featuring non-linearity, non-differentiability and high dimensionality. The proposed method is compared with a PSO based technique[9] to illustrate its robust performance considering different purchase prices for IPPs and CO 2 emission limits.

Problem Formulation When the structure of power system is changed and the concept of electricity market and competition are introduced, the GEP planning shifts from vertically integrated monopoly utilities to decentralized competitive generators. In this study, the purchasing agency model[14] is used for formulation of the GEP problem in deregulated environment. The integrated utility no longer owns all the generation capacity. IPPs are connected to the network and sell their output to the utility that acts as a purchasing agency. Generating technologies consist of nuclear, coal, gas and oil fired plants.

There are three types of generators depending on generation characteristics: the base-type, middle-type and peak-type. The scheduling order for generations to satisfy the load profile is generally nuclear, coal, oil and Liquid Nature Gas LNG or gas generations, respectively.

IPPs want to sell as much electricity as possible for various load profiles. The utilities need to minimize the total cost under operational constraints for all types of generations. It is important to determine what type of generating units to be constructed and when the unit to be on line over a planning horizon to maximize profits. Besides minimizing the cost, environmental issues are an important issue. Fossil-fired plants produce atmospheric emissions with various fuels at various cost bases, such as coal, gas and oil.

The cost of generation expansion can be formulated as a linear function that includes the variable costs and fixed costs of all technologies. When IPPs provide the electricity for utility, the transaction price and volume will be traded in the competitive market. If an IPP provides a relatively low transaction price under the similar characteristic of power generation, they will replace the generation of utility. Thus, the objective is to minimize the cost, which consists of generation expansion cost and purchasing electricity from lPPs while satisfying the load balance and operational constraints.

The objective function can he formulated as: 1 The constraints are described as follows[15]: 2. Power Balance Constraints The constraint states that the generated power from all the plants must be equal to the sum of the power demand and the reserve power. Generation Limits Constraints The capacity of new plant is limited by upper and lower limits. Emission CO 2 Constraints The emission of each plant should not exceed the pre-specified value and the total emission of all plants is also over the pre-specified value.

It should be noted that emission is dependent on the unit power generation.

## Mathematical Models and Algorithms for Power System Optimization

Here, the CO 2 emission model is assumed to be a combination of polynomial and exponential functions as follows: 8 9 2. ECO Algorithm Election is one of the most important political activities in human society.

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Sample surveys are employed widely in campaign to forecast the election results. Campaign is important behaviour in election. Election candidates always pursue the maximum support from voters by means of various election actions. Election campaign is a process that candidates seek maximum support from voters by a series of campaign, and optimization is to find the best in numerous feasible solutions; they are similar to some degree. It can be imagined that there is an optimization mechanism in the election process that can be simulated to establish a new optimization algorithm.

ECO is a new heuristic optimization algorithm which acts by simulating the behaviour that the election candidates pursue the highest support in campaign all along[16]. In ECO, the whole searching space is imagined to be assembly of voters, and the current solutions are imagined to be the election candidates. The candidates can influence the voters round them, the effects from candidates to voters will decrease gradually with the increase of distances between the candidates and the voters.

The support from the different voters are discrepant obviously, voters have to allot their support proportionally according to the effects imposed by the candidates. Sampling investigate to voters is done to investigate the support of candidates. In ECO algorithm, solution space is assumed as an assembly of all voters, current feasible solutions are imagined as candidates. The function value of a candidate is defined as the prestige of the candidate.

The prestige of a voter has the same definition. A few candidates are generated between the higher and lower bounds which are denoted as C i their location coordinate are x Ci. The search mechanism of ECO algorithm is described within a computing cycle as follows[17]: 3.

## Mathematical Models and Algorithms for Power System Optimization - 1st Edition

Compute the Prestige of Candidates The function value of a current solution, namely a candidate, is the prestige of the current candidate. Compute the Effect Ranges of Candidates The higher prestige a candidate is, the larger cover range the candidate has. Thus, it can be given by: 12 Where, R Ci represents the cover ranges of candidate C i ; R Max and R Min are the maximum and minimum cover ranges of candidates, they are the parameters of ECO algorithm, which need to set before computing; P Max and P Min are the maximum and minimum prestige of current candidates.

The Mean Square Deviation of Local Sample Survey The higher prestige a candidate is, the smaller the mean square deviation the candidate has, so that the ECO is able to converge to local best solution rapidly and steadily. The local voters V i,j are generated around each candidate using the normal distribution as[13]: 15 5 Voter's effect: A voter may be affected by several candidates. So his total effect F Vi is the sum of effect from all candidates: 16 17 18 Where, D CiVj is the distance between candidates and voters and F CiVj is effect on sample-survey voter V j from candidate C i.

A new position coordinate will achieve by means of summing the products of the contribution from the sample-survey voters to the candidate Q ViCj and the position coordinate of the sample-survey voters. It is called the support barycenter of the candidate which is given by 19 20 21 22 Where, S ViCj represents the support from the sample-survey voter V i to candidate C j and S Ci is the total supports of candidates. The support barycenter of a candidate is computed by means of sample-surveying, which depends on the positions of those sample-surveying voters whose distances to the candidate are nearer and prestiges are higher relatively.

The next election location of the candidate should be his support barycenter, where the candidate will have the higher support. Do that circularly until the highest support is found. Addresses DER and load interconnection issues by determining the maximum allowable capacity that can be added at any point of the network without violating a set of constraints. The calculation method provides aggregate and granular hosting capacity results for each distribution feeder and considers numerous circuit-specific attributes.

Assists engineers in their generation interconnection system impact studies. To determine the acceptability of a new load or generator interconnection by evaluating its impact on a series of power quality criteria. Distance Protection Analysis. Helps engineers design and verify their protection scheme, and address different coordination issues in any power system.

Optimal Voltage Regulator Placement. Allows the installation of voltage regulators at optimal locations on a distribution feeder. Optimal Recloser Placement. Designed to help engineers handle the complexity of the system reliability improvement issue. To analyze and promote the electrical safety for employees working on or near electrical equipment.

For the dynamic, locked rotor and maximum start size analyses dedicated to simulating the effects of induction and synchronous motor starting in three-phase electric power systems. Load Flow Contingency N-p. To assist in power flow related static contingency analysis.

Protective Device Coordination. The module provides engineers with a wide range of tools to efficiently and accurately design and validate the coordination scheme of their power system. Network Configuration Optimization. Assists in determining the optimal feeder configuration that will minimize losses, improve the voltage profile and balance the load between feeders. Contingency Assessment and Restoration. To study the impact of forced or planned outages on the electrical distribution system and find the optimal switching plan to restore electrical power to priority customers and to recover the maximum possible load in the affected areas.

Enhanced Substation Modeling. To model all the major components of the distribution substation and any sub-network such as the detailed modeling of an industrial facility. Secondary Grid Network Analysis. Allows the Power Flow and Short Circuit analyses of heavily meshed secondary grid network distribution systems for any voltage level. Low-Voltage Secondary Distribution Modeling. Functionality to model in detail low-voltage distribution systems within a one-line diagram. Online Maps Service. Scripting tool allowing the execution of commands and scripts. As a programming language-independent process, the CYME COM module allows the environment of your choice to communicate with the CYME software to access different pre-defined functions and calculations.

To create and maintain the CYME network data model. Generates the time-current characteristic curves for the protective devices of a given feeder. To optimize the design of new grids and reinforce existing grids, of any shape, by virtue of built-in danger point evaluation facilities. To perform power flow analysis in three-phase electric power networks. For the determination of short-circuit currents that result from different fault phenomena, the estimation of fault locations, the identification of under-rated equipment in electric power systems and the sizing of various system components.

To help engineers identify arc flash risk levels of their DC network and adopt the necessary safety measures. Low Voltage Cable Sizing. To perform harmonic penetration analysis in electric power systems. To simulate the electro-mechanical response of an electric power system to transient disturbances. To assess the ability of a power system to maintain stable voltages under different contingencies and loading conditions. It's been developed to protect people and property from electrical hazards. The code has been adopted by all 50 states.

These are the guidelines all electrical contractors and people setting up temporary power systems are required to meet. Department of Labor is to keep workers safe on the job. The organization has a comprehensive website that includes OSHA standards, the Regulatory Agenda a list of actions being taken related to OSHA standards , Federal Registers rules, proposed rules, and notices , directives instructions for compliance officers , standard interpretations official letters of interpretation of the standards , and national consensus standards related to electrical hazards.

The site includes rules and regulations, informative articles, and training material that you can share with coworkers to help keep them safe. State plans.

watch In additional to national guidelines, OSHA approves safety regulations developed by states and territories that meet or exceed their national ones. OSHA maintains a website that provides an overview of these regulations, along with links for each state or territory. Anyone who works with electrical components does calculations all the time.

The following tools make it easier to get the job done. The website features several hundred calculators that contractors and others will find valuable. ElectriCalc Pro helps electrical contractors solve tough electrical calculations quickly. These calculations conform with the most recent NEC guidelines. This tool can help save time and money on the job. A virtual app version of this calculator is profiled in the software and apps section of this article. RapidTables offers a complete range of online electrical calculators, along with documentation of the formulas that support the calculations.

It's a good idea to keep some of them handy — either print or online versions — on your job sites. This book provides information on power system planning for professionals and senior level and postgraduate students. It is primarily focused on long-term power solutions, but most of the information can easily be applied to temporary power setups. Electrician's Calculations Manual.

This guide was written by a master electrician with more than 40 years of industry experience. It provides easy access to the basic calculations needed to install electrical power at virtually any job. It's also a great resource for preparing for licensing exams. The guide has information about both AC and DC circuits and helps solve problems related to motor circuits and transformers. It has information related to home electrical installation, and an equal amount is about industrial-level work. Make sure you purchase the latest edition, which has been revised to reflect the National Electrical Code NEC and the most recent changes in the industry.

Electrician's Troubleshooting and Testing Pocket Guide. This book available in pocket-size paper and eBook editions has been developed for quick reference at any job site. It provides guidance for electricians using portable meters to test, maintain, and troubleshoot all types of electrical equipment and systems. It offers guidance on current troubleshooting tools, testing instruments, systems, and equipment, along with easy-to-use tables and diagrams that can help improve the quality of installations and make sure they are compliant.

Electrotechnology in Mining. This is the definitive guide to distributing power in mines. It delves into complex and critical issues, including:. Handbook of Electric Power Calculations. This guide offers engineers, technicians, and others who plan electrical systems step-by-step guidelines to solve a broad range of electric power problems. It's a good book to keep handy when you need to find just the right calculation to get the job done.